Standards of Best Practice: Simulation

The International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) has developed the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM. The INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation were designed to advance the science of simulation, share best practices, and provide evidence based guidelines for implementation and training.

INACSL provides a detailed process for evaluating and improving simulation operating procedures and delivery methods that every simulation team will benefit from. Adoption of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation demonstrate a commitment to quality and implementation of rigorous evidence based practices in healthcare education to improve patient care by complying with practice standards in the following areas:

Members of INACSL receive complimentary access to the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation through Clinical Simulation in Nursing*, INACSL’s monthly on-line journal published by Elsevier. Click here to download a free electronic (PDF) copy of the entire INACSL Standard of Best Practice: SimulationSM published in 2016. A hard copy of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM published in 2016 may also be purchased through the INACSL store. Check with your school library to see if they subscribe to Clinical Simulation in Nursing journal directly or receive it as a part of their Science Direct bundle.

Citation and Use of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM

As the copyright owner of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) welcomes you to cite and use the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation in your presentations and publications. Please verify you are in compliance with U.S. copyright law by:

  1. Correctly citing INACSL as the copyright owner of the material used in your publication; and/or
  2. Enter into a license agreement with INACSL before reproducing the Work, in its entirety, for print or online publications.
  3. Correctly reference the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM by:
    • Using the superscript servicemark (SM) when referencing the mark (INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM) in the title and first reference in the body of the Work.
    • Using the full mark (INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM) throughout the Work.
    • The first time the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM are referenced in any document or promotional materials the service mark (SM) needs to be present.  Once the “SM” superscript is used the first time it is understood in future references to the item. However the full name must still be used in the document when referring to the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation in order to be consistent.
  4. Please contact INACSL headquarters with your request or any questions.

INACSL Standards Committee

As the science of simulation continues to evolve, so does the need for additions and revisions to the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM.  Therefore, the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM. Therefore, the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM are living documents.  

The INACSL Standards Committee are a select group of INACSL members who review and revise content on a regular basis.  Committee members are appointed bi-annually. The selection process includes a review of the member’s: academic degree, INACSL membership, involvement with simulation organizations, service to INACSL and affiliate organizations, experience writing and/or revising professional Standards, clinical practice guidelines, or national certifications; simulation expertise, presentations and publications.  

Click here for information about the current Standards Committee.

Click here for a full list of past INACSL Standards Committee members.

Click here to learn more about the history of the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation. 

Publication of the 2016 INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM was made possible by an educational grant from:




Articles Featuring INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM

Alinier, G., Harwood, C., Harwood, P., Montague, S., Huish, E., Ruparelia, K., & Antuofermo, M. (2014). Immersive Clinical Simulation in Undergraduate Health Care Interprofessional Education: Knowledge and Perceptions. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(4), e205-e216.Brown, R. A., Guinea, S., Crookes, P. A., McAllister, M., Levette-Jones, T., Kelly, M. Smith, A.  (2012).  Clinical simulation in Australia and New Zealand:  Through the lens of an advisory group.  Collegian, 19, 177-186.

Alinier, G., & Platt, A. (2014). International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care. Nursing in critical care, 19(1), 42-49.

Bolesta, S. and Chmil, J.V. (2014) Interprofessional education among student health professionals using human patient simulation. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(5), 94. doi: 10.5688/ajpe78594.

Bornais. J., Foisy-Doll, C., Wyrostok, L., (2014, May). Transforming Nursing Education Using Simulation. In Gregory, D., Raymond-Seniuk, C., & Patrick, L., Fundamentals: Perspectives on the Art and Science of Canadian Nursing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cowperthwait, A., Saylor, J., & Schell, K. (2014, January). Healthcare theatre: A unique simulation partnership. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(1), e41-e46.

Gore, T., Leighton, K., Sanderson, B., Wang, C. (2014). Fidelity's Effect on Student Perceived Preparedness for Patient Care. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, (in press, pub online).

Graham, L. (2013). University of Ontario-Durham College-Georgian College: Strategic Plan 2013-2018: Simulation. Collaborative BScN Nursing Program. Unpublished Report. Ontario: CA.

Groom, J., Henderson, & Sittner, B. (2014, July).  NLN/Jeffries Simulation Framework State of the Science Project: Simulation Design CharacteristicsClinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(7), 337-344.

Hayden, J. K., Smiley, R. A., Alexander, M., Kardong-Edgren, S., & Jeffries, P. R.  (2014).  The NCSBN national simulation study:  A longitudinal, randomized, controlled study replacing clinical hours with simulation in prelicensure nursing education.  Journal of Nursing Regulation, 5(2), 1-66.

Howard, V., Leighton, K., & Gore, T. (2013). Simulation in healthcare education. In R. Nelson, & N. Staggers (Eds.). Health Informatics: An Interprofessional Approach. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Kilgore, R. V., Goodwin, M. E., & Harding, R. A.  (2013).  Adding context to a simulation module for leadership and management baccalaureate nursing students.  Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(9), 148-155.

Leighton, K., & Johnson-Russell, J. (2013). Innovations in facilitating learning using simulation in Bradshaw, M., & Lowenstein, A. (Eds.). Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions. (5th ed). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett, Inc.

Leighton, K. (2013). Nursing. In A. I. Levine, S. DeMaria, A. D. Schwartz, & A. Sim (Eds.). The Comprehensive Textbook of Healthcare Simulation. New York: Springer Publishing.

Leighton, K. (2013). Preparation and development of practice in the simulation center: Building the simulated clinical experience (SCE). In J. C. Amado Martins (Ed.). Simulation in Nursing Education: Theoretical Bases. -In editing prior to translation to Portuguese and Spanish.

Lioce, L. (2014). New validation for simulation education. The American Nurse, Jul/Aug14, 7, Silver Spring: Maryland.

Mariani, B., Cantrell, M. A., Meakim, C., Prieto, P., & Dreifuerst, K. T. (2013, May). Structured debriefing and students’ clinical judgment abilities in simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(5), e147-e155. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2011.11.009.

Murphy, J. I. (2013, July). Using plan do study act to transform a simulation center. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(7), e257-e264. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2012.03.002.

Pittman, O. A. (2012). The use of simulation with advanced practice nursing students. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 24(9), 516-520. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00760.x

Platt, A., Tuffnell, C., Bradley, G., Jaden Allan, J., Cowie, B., Kelleher, M. and Parr, M. (2011). Mapping of the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) (2011). Mapping of the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) (2011) to the simulation sessions for adult nursing students undertaking the "Making it Real" Curriculum, Northumbria University. Unpublished Report, Northumbria University: UK.

Robert Morris University.  (2012, September).  RISE Center INACSL standards of practice.

Rutherford-Hemming, T., Kardong-Edgren, S., Gore, T., Ravert, P., & Rizzolo, M. A.  (in press).  High-stakes evaluation:  Five years later.  Clinical Simulation in Nursing.

Rutherford-Hemming, T., Lioce, L., & Durham, C. F.  (in press).  Implementing the Standards of Best Practice:  Simulation.  Nurse Educator.

Sando, C., Faragher, J., Boese, T., & Decker, S. Simulation Standards Development: An Idea Inspires. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 7(3), e73-e74. doi: 10.1016/j.ecns.2010.12.004

Shelestak, D., & Voshall, B. (2014, May ). Examining validity, fidelity, and reliability of human patient simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(5), e257-e260.

Sittner, B. (2014).  Setting the stage for simulation [Online simulation certificate course].  Bryan College of Health Sciences, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Victor-Chmil, J. (2013). Critical thinking versus clinical reasoning versus clinical judgment: Differential diagnosis. [ ] Nurse Educator, 38(1), 34-36. doi:10.1097/NNE.0b013e318276dfbe

Victor-Chmil, J. and Larew, C. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 10(1),

Wiseman, A., Haynes, C., & Hodge, S. (2013, October). Implementing professional integrity and simulation-based learning in health and social care: An ethical and legal maze or a professional requirement for high-quality simulated practice learning? Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(10), e437-e443.